FINDING A JOB
Government Emergency Ordinance No 56/2007, citizens coming from EU and EEA
countries enjoy the same status regarding employment in Romania as do Romanian
Jobseekers who are EU and EEA citizens can contact the National Employment Agency, which is Romania’s public employment office.
Interested persons may inquire and register with the 215 local employment agencies situated all over the country. Local agencies provide information, counselling and mediation services for jobseekers or unemployed persons, as well as information and mediation services for potential employers. The services offered are free of charge.
A county and national level database contains all jobs offered by employers, who are required by law to declare all their vacancies. Detailed information can be found on the National Employment Agency website.
Upon arrival in Romania, jobseekers who are EU/EEA citizens can contact the nearest local/county employment agency. They should submit form E 303 and request the National Employment Agency to register them. The National Employment Agency is responsible for paying unemployment benefits.
One may also contact the 43 EURES counsellors placed with the county employment agencies. The contact details of these EURES counsellors can be found on the National Employment Agency website.
On the labour market there are also employment incentive service providers accredited by the National Employment Agency in accordance with the law.
Another way of finding a job in Romania is offered by various web portals which are a major source for vacancies. Here you can find jobs published directly by employers and can also post your CV into the database, so that it becomes accessible to employers looking for staff.
The national, regional and local newspapers also contain numerous classified job advertisements (both job offers and requests).
In certain situations it is better to contact an employer directly, especially if you are applying for temporary work in rural areas.
Any application should comply with the job requirements
and provide a first impression of the profile of the person applying. The most
common way to apply for a job is to send a CV, which may be accompanied by a
letter of application (maximum 1 page long) giving one’s reasons for applying
for the job concerned. The CV should preferably be produced in both an
international language and in Romanian, in case knowledge of the Romanian
language is required.
As for completing your CV, this has to be structured. Standard CV forms can be used, and the EURES network in Romania uses the Europass CV model. A CV contains an applicant’s skills, qualifications and experience, presented chronologically (when filling in the “Work Experience” section, it is customary to begin either with the current job or with the most recent one).
The Europass CV and the instructions for filling it out can be found both on the European EURES portal and on the National Employment Agency website.
When going for an interview an applicant should bring along his/her CV as well as any other useful documents: the baccalaureate diploma, (authenticated) higher education graduation diplomas, a copy of his/her employment record, other training certificates, an extract from the judicial register and a medical examination certificate. Employers may ask applicants to take a psychological test.
The free movement of
goods is one of the cornerstones of the European Single Market.
The removal of national barriers to the free movement of goods within the EU is one of the principles enshrined in the EU Treaties. Starting from a traditionally protectionist stance, the countries of the EU have been steadily lifting trade restrictions to form a ‘common’, or single, market. This commitment to create a European trading area without frontiers has led to the creation of more wealth and new jobs and has globally established the EU as a world trading player alongside the United States and Japan.
Despite Europe’s commitment to breaking down all internal trade barriers not all sectors of the economy have been harmonised. The European Union decided to regulate at European level sectors which might impose a higher risk for Europe’s citizens – such as pharmaceuticals or construction products. The majority of products (considered a ‘lower risk’) are subject to the application of the so-called principle of mutual recognition, which means that essentially every product legally manufactured or marketed in one of the Member States can be freely moved and traded within the EU’s internal market.
Limits to the free movement of goods
The EU Treaty gives Member States the right to set limits to the free movement of goods when there is a specific common interest such as protection of the environment, citizens’ health, or public policy, to name but a few. This means for example that if the import of a product is seen by a Member State’s national authorities as a potential threat to public health, public morality or public policy, it can deny or restrict access to its market. Examples of such products are genetically modified food or certain energy drinks.
Even though there are generally no limitations to the purchase of goods in another Member State as long as they are for personal use, there is a series of European restrictions for specific categories of products such as alcohol and tobacco.
Free movement of capital
Another essential condition for the functioning of the European internal market is the free movement of capital. It is one of the four basic freedoms guaranteed by EU legislation and represents the basis of the integration of European financial markets. Europeans can now manage and invest their money in any EU Member State.
The liberalisation of capital markets has marked a crucial point in the process of economic and monetary integration in the EU. It was the first step towards the establishment of our European Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) and the common currency, the Euro.
The principle of the free movement of capital not only increases the efficiency of financial markets within the Union it also brings a series of advantages to EU citizens. Individuals can carry out a broad number of financial operations within the EU without major restrictions. For instance, individuals, with few restrictions, can easily open a bank account, buy shares, invest or purchase real estate in another EU Member State. EU companies can invest in, own or manage other European enterprises.
Certain exceptions to this principle apply both within the Member States and with third countries. They are mainly related to taxation, prudential supervision, public policy considerations, money laundering and financial sanctions agreed under the EU Common Foreign and Security Policy.
The European Commission is continuing to work on the completion of the free market for financial services by implementing new strategies for financial integration in order to make it even easier for citizens and companies to manage their money within the EU.
It is advisable to know where you are going to live in
Romania before you leave your own country. This helps to avoid complications.
There are many possibilities, depending on budget and individual preferences.
If you wish to rent an apartment for the duration of your stay in Romania you should browse the real estate sections of newspapers. You can also call on the services of a real estate agent (check the Pagini Aurii -Yellow Pages). Prices vary according to the size of the rented house, as well as location, with city centres being the most expensive areas. Tenants must sign a contract with the owner, and the contract must be official.
Whether studying at universities or not, people travelling for study purposes have the following options: student hostels, residences and apartments.
Finding an apartment on the internet
As well as the traditional ways of finding an apartment or advertising for one (via the media or real estate agents), the Internet has become a new way of searching for an apartment to rent or buy.
Buying a property
In Bucharest, larger cities and spas, houses are more expensive than in the rest of the country. When buying a house, documents must be authenticated at a notary’s office.
As part of the acquisition procedure buyers must set up and sign contracts for the following utilities: electricity, gas, water and heating, as well as waste management. In the case of apartments, payment for these services is made through the owners’ association.
Invoices for these services (gas, electricity, telephone, cable TV) should be paid on time, normally on a monthly basis, otherwise their delivery may be interrupted.
EU/EEA citizens who wish to enrol their children in the
Romanian educational system have the following options: state educational
institutions and private educational institutions.
Before moving to Romania it is a good idea to do at least some research regarding the types of educational institutions situated in the vicinity of the new place of residence and to find out whether a school has the administrative capacity to receive new pupils. It is very important that parents should produce certificates indicating the studies completed by their children in their country of origin.
In Romania, the pre-university education system is structured on 4 levels: pre-school (nurseries and kindergartens), primary, secondary (lower secondary and high school) and post-high school.
The national higher education system is structured on 3 levels of university studies: undergraduate, master and doctoral studies.
In general the territorial principle applies, i.e. the proximity of the residence to the educational institution. This means that educational institutions (up to the high school level) situated in a certain location guarantee places for the children living in that area. Remaining places are then allocated to children from outside the local area. No examination is required for children to be enrolled at kindergarten or primary school. However, admission to high schools, colleges and universities is examination based.
In addition, there is a series of private educational institutions (kindergartens, high schools, universities) which charge fees for both enrolment and tuition. In Romania there are 66 public higher education institutions and 32 accredited private higher education institutions.
Information about the Romanian educational system can be found on the internet on the Ministry of Education and Research website, by contacting local authorities, or by accessing specialised portals.
The implementation of the principle of free movement of
people, one of the cornerstones of our European house, has meant the introduction
of a series of practical rules to ensure that citizens can travel freely and
easily to any Member State of the European Union. Travelling across the EU by
car has become a lot simpler. The European Commission has enacted a series of
common regulations governing the mutual recognition of driving licences, the
validity of car insurance and the possibility of registering your car in a host
Our driving licence in the EU
There is at the moment no common EU driving licence but the EU Member States have introduced a “Community Model” licence. This common model ensures that driving licences issued by different EU countries can be easily recognised in other Member States. The principle of mutual recognition is generally applied. Licences are issued in accordance with national law, but should incorporate provisions concerning the Community Model such as the basic conditions for granting a licence.
Old driving licences issued before 1996 do not have to be exchanged for the new Community Model driving licence and remain valid until they expire.
If an EU citizen takes up residence in another Member State he does not need to exchange his driving licence although for practical reasons many people often do. Some Member States also require additional data to be entered onto licences in order to fulfil particular administrative requirements.
In the event of expiry, loss or theft, a new driving licence can be issued in the Member State of residence in accordance with national rules. Citizens should contact the competent authorities.
Registering your car in the host country
If you reside in another EU Member State and drive your car there for more than six months you will be obliged to register your car with the local authorities and pay the host country’s registration tax.
EU citizens can insure their car in any EU country as long as the chosen insurance company has been licensed by the host national authority to issue the relevant insurance policies. A company based in another Member State is entitled to sell a policy for compulsory civil liability only if certain conditions have been met. Insurance will be valid throughout the Union, no matter where an accident takes place.
Value Added Tax or VAT on motor vehicles is ordinarily paid in the country where the car is purchased although under certain conditions, VAT is paid in the country of destination.
EU citizens may enter Romania upon presentation of a
national identity document or a valid passport. The border police will not
place an entry stamp on either of these documents.
Family members who are not EU citizens may enter Romania using a valid passport bearing an entry visa granted by a Romanian diplomatic mission and consular office (except for cases where the visa obligation has been removed by law). Any family member who is not an EU citizen but owns a valid document proving his/her residence in another Member State as a family member of an EU citizen will be exempt from the obligation to obtain a visa.
Within a maximum of 15 days of their arrival in Romania, EU citizens or, as the case may be, their family members, must report to the nearest office of the Romanian Border Police or the Romanian Immigration Office and declare their presence in Romania.
EU citizens entering the territory of Romania are entitled to an unconditional right of residence for a period of 3 months after their arrival. If EU citizens stay in Romania longer than 3 months they have to prove that they are employed or self-employed, or that they have medical insurance and the necessary means of support, or that they are attending an educational institution. Family members of EU citizens who are accompanying the latter or who subsequently join them enjoy the same right of residence in Romania irrespective of their own citizenship.
EU citizens who can demonstrate uninterrupted legal residence in Romania for a period of at least 5 years gain the right to permanent residence and to a permanent residence card. People who do not have EU citizenship, but have resided uninterruptedly in Romania for a period of at least 5 years as family members of a resident or permanently resident EU citizen enjoy the same right. EU citizens must prove that they are employed or self-employed, or that they have medical insurance and the necessary means of support, or that they are attending an educational institution. Residence cards are issued by the Romanian Immigration Office in response to applications filed within the first 3 months of arrival in Romania.
Before leaving for Romania, the documents required for
those family members of EU citizens who are not EU citizens should be obtained
from a Romanian consulate in the EU Member State of residence. Initially, it
will be necessary to obtain the European Social Insurance and Health Card, a
document which gives an insured person the right to medical services if
required during a temporary stay in another EU Member State. Without this card,
fees for medical services received must be paid in full or these amounts must
be reimbursed, upon request, from the country of origin.
EU citizens entering the territory of Romania have an unconditional right of residence for a period of 3 months after their arrival.
If EU citizens stay in Romania longer than 3 months they must prove that they are employed or self-employed, or that they have medical insurance and the necessary means of support, or that they are attending an educational institution. Residence cards are issued by the Romanian Immigration Office in response to applications submitted within the first 3 months of arrival in Romania.
If you intend to work in Romania but do not have an employment contract you must register with the nearest Local Employment Agency. To do this, you will require an identity document certifying your current address in Romania. To find the right job, you should present documents certifying your education and qualifications. These documents should be in Romanian.
For accommodation, it is advisable to resolve this issue within the very first month, which means that it may be sufficient to reserve a place to stay before arriving in Romania, but for a limited period of time, and later on, while in Romania, seek permanent accommodation.
The national currency is the LEU (RON). This can be exchanged at the airport, in banks or private exchange offices. If using a private exchange office you should pay attention to the commission you are asked to pay before the transaction occurs.
If you are accompanied by your family and some of your family members are still attending school you should find out what documents are required for enrolment in Romanian schools and take with you the relevant documents issued by the competent authorities in the respective country of origin. It is very important that families with children look for places in kindergartens or schools in good time.
A driving licence issued by a Member State will be valid up to its expiry date, after which, if the holder is interested in moving to Romania, the licence will be replaced upon request, in the same manner in which Romanian citizens replace their licences upon expiry.
After arrival in Romania, integration measures should be taken: registering your stay, applying for a residence permit (including for family members if necessary), informing the local authorities of your new address.
If you intend to be self-employed in Romania you should first enquire about obtaining a fiscal (tax) registration code from the National Fiscal Administration Agency. As of 1 January 2008, employees will be required to register with a private pension fund of their choice if they are not already part of such a scheme. This is because the second pillar of the compulsory pension fund is a private one, based on the capitalisation of contributions.
Quality of work and
employment - a vital issue, with a strong economic and humanitarian impact.
Good working conditions are important for the well-being of workers in Europe. They contribute to the physical and psychological welfare of people in Europe and contribute to the economic performance of the EU.
From a humanitarian point of view the quality of the working environment has a strong influence on the overall work and life satisfaction of workers in Europe.
From an economic point of view, high-quality job conditions are a driving force of economic growth and a foundation for the competitive position of the European Union. A high level of job satisfaction is an important factor for achieving high productivity in the economy of the EU.
It is therefore a core issue for the European Union to promote the creation and maintenance of a sustainable and pleasant working environment – one that promotes the health and well-being of European employees and creates a good balance between work and leisure.
Improving working conditions in Europe: an important objective for the European Union.
Ensuring favourable working conditions for European citizens is a priority for the EU. The European Union is therefore collaborating with national governments to ensure a pleasant and safe environment in the workplace. Support to Member States is provided through:
the quality of work and employment
In order to achieve sustainable working conditions it is important to determine what makes a favourable working environment and thus the criteria for the quality of working conditions.
The European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions (EUROFOUND) in Dublin is an EU agency that, as its name implies, provides information, advice and expertise on living and working conditions. This agency has established several criteria for job and employment quality, which include:
The work of Eurofound will contribute
to the planning and design of better living and working conditions in Europe.
Health and safety at work
The European Commission has undertaken a wide scope of activities to promote a healthy working environment in the EU Member States. Among other things, it developed a Community Strategy for Health and Safety at Work for the period 2002-2006. This strategy was set up with the help of national authorities, social partners and NGOs. It focuses on the promotion of international cooperation and the necessity of a strong culture of prevention. A new strategy for the period 2007-2012 is underway.
The Community policy on health and safety at work aims at a long-lasting improvement of the well-being of EU workers. It takes into account the physical, moral and social dimensions of working conditions, as well as the new challenges brought by the enlargement of the European Union towards countries from Central and Eastern Europe. The introduction of EU standards for health and safety at the workplace has contributed a lot to the improvement of the situation of workers in these countries.
Improving working conditions by setting minimum requirements common to all EU countries
Improving living and working conditions in the EU Member States depends largely on the establishment of common labour standards. EU labour laws and regulations have set the minimum requirements for a sustainable working environment and are now applied in all Member States. The improvement of these standards has strengthened workers’ rights and is one of the main achievements of the EU’s social policy.
The importance of transparency and mutual recognition of
diplomas as a crucial complement to the free movement of workers.
The possibility of obtaining recognition of one’s qualifications and competences can play a vital role in any decision to take up work in another EU country. It is therefore necessary to develop a European system that will guarantee the mutual acceptance of professional competences in the different Member States. Only such a system will prevent a lack of recognition of professional qualifications becoming an obstacle to workers’ mobility within the EU.
The main principles for the recognition of professional qualifications in the EU
As a basic principle, any EU citizen should be able to practise his or her profession freely in any Member State. Unfortunately the practical implementation of this principle is often hindered by national requirements governing access to certain professions in host countries.
To overcome these differences the EU has set up a system for the recognition of professional qualifications. This system distinguishes between regulated professions (professions for which certain qualifications are legally required) and professions that are not legally regulated in the host Member State.
Steps towards the transparency of qualifications in Europe
The European Union has taken important steps towards the objective of achieving transparency of qualifications in Europe:
differences in the education and training systems throughout the EU
Education and training systems in the EU Member States still reveal substantial differences. The latest enlargements of the EU, with different educational traditions, have further increased this diversity. This calls for a need to set up common rules to guarantee recognition of competences.
In order to overcome this diversity of national qualification standards, educational methods and training structures, the European Commission has enacted a series of instruments aimed at ensuring better transparency and recognition of qualifications both for academic and professional purposes.
The European Qualifications Framework
The European Qualifications Framework is a key priority for the European Commission in the process of recognition of professional competences. The main objective of the framework is to create links between the different national qualification systems and guarantee the smooth transfer and recognition of diplomas.
The National Academic Recognition Information Centres
A network of National Academic Recognition Information Centres was established in 1984 at the initiative of the European Commission. The NARICs provide advice on the academic recognition of periods of study abroad. Located in all EU Member States as well as in the countries of the European Economic Area, NARICs play a vital role in the process of recognition of qualifications in the EU.
The European Credit Transfer System (ECTS)
The European Credit Transfer System aims at facilitating the recognition of periods of study abroad. Introduced in 1989, it functions by describing an education programme and attaching credits to its components. It is a key complement to the highly acclaimed student mobility programme Erasmus.
Europass is an instrument for ensuring the transparency of professional skills. It comprises five standardised documents:
1. a CV (Curriculum Vitae),
2. a language passport,
3. certificate supplements,
4. diploma supplements, and
5. a Europass Mobility document.
The Europass system makes skills and
qualifications clearly and easily understood in the different parts of Europe.
In every country of the European Union and the European Economic Area, national
Europass centres have been established as the primary contact points for people
seeking for information about the Europass system.
Recognition of diplomas and qualifications in Romania
The recognition of diplomas and qualifications for the recognised professions in Romania applies to any citizen of an EU Member State or of the EEA who wants to work in Romania independently or as an employee. The institution responsible for the recognition of diplomas is the National Centre for Recognition and Equivalence of Diplomas in the Ministry of Education, Research and Youth. The Centre also recognises the diplomas and study documents of foreign citizens requesting work permits.
A diploma is a document or set of documents certifying the level of training, which:
Likewise, any document issued by a competent authority in a Member State is considered to be a diploma if it refers to training acquired in the EU or EEA. Diplomas should also be recognised by the competent authority of a Member State with an equivalent level to the above-mentioned ones, only if that State stipulates the same access rights to a profession regulated in the Member State of origin.
According to the Romanian Labour Code, an individual
becomes able to work at the age of 16. However, with the consent of their
parents or legal guardians an individual may sign an employment contract as a
salaried person at the age of 15, with a view to carrying out activities that
are appropriate for their stage of physical development, skills and knowledge,
and provided that this does not jeopardise their health, development or
professional training. Difficult, harmful or hazardous jobs may be performed
only by persons aged 18 or over. These jobs are determined by Government
Employment contracts may be permanent or fixed-term, with full-time or part-time working hours. A full-time employment contract involves 8 working hours per day (40 hours/5 weekly days). A part-time employment contract involves at least 2 working hours per day or 10 working hours per week. The legal working hours limit may not exceed 48 ours per week, including overtime.
Working hours for young people aged 18 or under are limited to 6 hours per day and 30 hours per week. In addition, they are not permitted to work overtime.
Working hours can be organised in shifts, including night shifts. However, normal working hours prevail. Employers may normally impose a probationary period of 30 calendar days for operational positions and of no more than 90 calendar days for management positions. The probationary period is 5 working days for jobs involving unskilled labour. Graduates may undergo a probationary period of 3 to 6 months. Any probationary period counts as length of service.
EU citizens may occupy any employment position, except public office, for which Romanian citizenship is necessary. The employer is the legal entity or individual that hires its work force on the basis of an individual employment contract.
For more information concerning labour relations, labour protection and occupational health and safety, contact the Office of the Labour Inspectorate, visit the website of this institution or the website of the Ministry of Labour, Family and Equal Opportunities.
An employment contract is required by law. Such contracts
set out several elements, such as: the identity of the parties, job location,
the employer’s registered address, a job description, job-specific risks, the
date of commencement of the contract, the amount of annual leave to which an
employee is entitled, the base salary, any other elements included in the remuneration,
the frequency of salary payments, normal working hours (in hours/day and
days/week), and the collective employment contract regulating an employee’s
Individual employment contracts are registered with the Employees’ General Register at the Office of the Labour Inspectorate. An employer is under an obligation to provide employees with a copy of their employment contract (registered with the Local Labour Inspectorate to which the employing company belongs), signed by both parties. Fixed-term individual employment contracts may be drawn up for a period of up to 12 months and may be extended to no longer than 18 months. Where a fixed-term individual employment contract has been set up to replace an employee whose individual employment contract has been suspended, the fixed-term contract expires as soon as the causes determining the suspension of the latter’s individual employment contract cease to exist.
Should there be any changes to an employment relationship the employer must notify the employee in writing of these changes. The employer also notifies the Local Labour Inspectorate within 5 days.
For more information about labour relations, labour protection and occupational health and safety, contact the Office of the Labour Inspectorate, visit the website of this institution or the website of the Ministry of Labour, Family and Equal Opportunities.
The special categories of employees protected by the
Romanian Labour Code are: young people aged 18 or under, people with
disabilities, and immigrants.
Working hours for young people aged 18 or under are limited to 6 hours per day and 30 hours per week. They may not undertake overtime or night work. In addition, night work may not be imposed on pregnant women, women who have recently given birth or nursing mothers.
Young people aged 18 or under are entitled to a lunch break of at least 30 minutes where daily working time exceeds 4 hours and 30 minutes.
According to the provisions of the Labour Code, employees are entitled to a minimum annual leave of 20 working days. Young people aged 18 or under are entitled to additional annual leave of at least 3 working days.
People with disabilities may be employed in protected workplaces, organised especially by securing appropriate facilities and adjustments so as to eliminate any impediments.
People with disabilities may also work from home, in which case the individual or legal entity employing them must provide transportation to and from the employee’s home of any raw materials used and of the end products made by the employee.
People with disabilities who are on an individual employment contract shall be entitled to all workplace adjustments and facilities required to eliminate all impediments to their work activities.
People with severe, substantial or average disabilities who are on an individual employment contract enjoy special protection rights.
The institution responsible for the protection of people with disabilities is the National Authority for People with Disabilities.
Refugees are a category of foreigners enjoying legal protection in Romania. They are granted free access to the Romanian labour market and are entitled to access to the social insurance system (unemployment and health benefits).
Foreign citizens coming from non-EU states are granted access to the Romanian labour market to the extent that vacant positions cannot be occupied by Romanian or EU/EEA citizens. They then become entitled to the Romanian social insurance system. To be employed, such citizens require a work permit issued by the Romanian Immigration Office.
Individuals who are either Romanian or EU/EEA citizens
may carry out business activities on Romanian territory as self-employed
persons or as part of family trusts under the provisions of Law No 300/2004 on
the authorisation of individuals and family businesses to carry out independent
Individuals and family businesses may be authorised to carry out business activities in all fields, trades and professions, with the exception of those regulated by special laws. Individuals carrying out independent business activities, as well as individuals who are members of family businesses, are self-employed. Self-employment status refers to the right of being a beneficiary of the public pension and other social insurance rights systems, the social health insurance system and the unemployment benefits system, in accordance with the relevant laws.
Workers who carry out independent business activities, as well as family businesses authorised in accordance with Law No 300/2004, may not employ other persons on individual employment contracts to carry out the activities for which the legal authorisation for self-employment has been obtained. Individuals carrying out independent business activities and family businesses must hold an authorisation and a registration certificate issued in accordance with the legal provisions in force.
Self-employed workers are required to register with the Trade Register Office, as authorised individuals.
Upon establishment and payment of salaries, any form of
discrimination – whether related to gender, sexual orientation, age,
nationality, race, skin colour, ethnicity, religion, political orientation,
social origin, disabilities, family status or responsibilities, trade union
affiliation or activity – is prohibited.
Paid salaries include the base salary and various types of allowances (for night work, shift work, or overtime). The payment of salaries prevails over any other financial obligations an employer might have.
The salaries of staff hired by public authorities and institutions are financed entirely or in great part from the state budget, the public social insurance budget, the local budget and the special funds budgets, established in accordance with the legal provisions in force, upon consultation with trade union representatives.
The national gross minimum wage is established by government decision upon consultation with trade union and employer association representatives.
Employers are under an obligation to inform their employees with respect to the guaranteed national gross minimum wage. Employers must pay their employees wages that are not lower than the guaranteed national gross minimum wage.
The national gross minimum wage guaranteed as of 1 January 2008 is RON 500.00 RON (approximately EUR 135).
For private sector employees, the Collective Labour Agreement establishes some coefficients for the salaries’calculation depending on the employee’s study level. University graduates earn at least 2Xgross minimum wage (1000 RON or ~270 EUR)
In Romania, all employees and employers are required to pay contributions to the social insurance budget, the health fund, the unemployment fund and the state budget, in the form of income tax - see chapter 4.3 (Income and taxes).
hours are 8 hours per day and 40 hours per week. Working time may not exceed 48
hours per week, including overtime. Working hours for young people aged 18 or
under are limited to 6 hours per day and 30 hours per week.
If shift work is performed, working time may exceed 8 hours per day and 48 hours per week, provided that the total number of working hours, calculated for a period of up to 3 weeks, does not exceed 8 hours per day and 48 hours per week. Working time, including overtime, may exceptiionally exceed 48 hours per week, provided that the average number of working hours, calculated for a reference period of 3 calendar months, does not exceed 48 hours per week.
For certain fields of activity, units or professions, a daily working time shorter or longer than 8 hours may be established following collective or individual negotiations, or by means of specific normative acts. A daily working time of 12 hours must be followed by a 24-hour rest period.
Overtime is compensated either by paid time off in lieu within the following 30 days or by granting additional pay. Additional pay is established following negotiations under the terms of the collective employment contract or the individual employment contract, as appropriate, and it may not be lower than 75% of the base salary. Young people aged 18 or less may not perform overtime work.
Work performed between 10 p.m. and 6 a.m. is classified as night work. Normal working time for employees who perform night work may not exceed an average of 8 hours per day, calculated for a reference period not longer than 3 calendar months, while abiding by the legal provisions in force with respect to weekly resting time.
Employees who perform night work are entitled to:
Workloads are established by employers
in accordance with the legislation in force or, if no applicable legislation
exists, they are established by employers with the consent of trade union or
employees’ representative as appropriate. Workloads must be established for all
categories of employees.
According to the Labour Code, the following rest periods are granted to employees: lunch break, daily rest, weekly rest and public holidays.
In cases where daily working time exceeds 6 hours employees are entitled to a lunch break and other breaks in accordance with the terms of the applicable collective employment contract or with the terms of the employer’s internal rules.
Young people aged 18 or less are entitled to a lunch break of at least 30 minutes if their daily working time exceeds 4˝ hours. Unless otherwise established under an applicable collective labour agreement and the a company’s own rules, breaks are not included in the normal daily working time.
Weekly rest consists of two consecutive days, usually Saturdays and Sundays.
Non-working public holidays are: 1 and 2 January; the first and second day of Easter; 1 May; 1 December; the first and second day of Christmas; 2 days for each of the two annual religious holidays, declared as such by legally recognised religions other than Christian, for persons affiliated to these religions.
There are several types of paid leave in
Annual paid leave is guaranteed to all employees; the minimum length of annual leave is 20 working days according to the provisions of the Labour Code, or 21 working days according to the National Collective Labour Agreement. Public holidays established under the law and the collective labour agreement are not included in the duration of the annual paid leave. This leave must be taken every year. For the leave period, employees receive an allowance not lower than their base salary plus any other permanent allowances or additional payments normally due for the respective period, as stipulated in their individual employment contracts. The paid leave allowance is calculated as the daily average of salary entitlements received in the 3 months prior to the leave, multiplied by the number of leave days. The paid leave allowance must be paid by the employer at least 5 working days before the commencement of the leave period.
According to the Labour Code, paid non-working days – not included in the duration of paid annual leave – are granted in case of exceptional family events. The nature of exceptional family events and the amount of paid non-working days are established under by law, the applicable collective labour agreement or the internal regulations.
Private sector employees are entitled to paid non-working days for exceptional family events or other situations, as follows: marriage of employee – 5 days; marriage of an employee’s child – 2 days; birth of a child – 5 days + 10 days in case the employee attended infant care courses; death of spouse, child, parents, parents-in-law – 3 days; death of grandparents, brothers, sisters – 1 day; blood donors – according to the legal provisions in force; upon change of employment within the same company, when relocating to another town – 5 days.
Vocational training leave. Employees are entitled, upon request, to vocational training leave. Such leave may be paid or not paid.
The sick leave and social health insurance allowances to which employees are legally entitled are as follows: sick leave and allowances for temporary work disability caused by common illnesses or accidents which occurred outside work; sick leave and allowances for illness prevention and recovery of the ability to work, only for situations resulting from work-related accidents or occupational illnesses; maternity leave and allowances, leave and allowances for caring for a sick child, maternal risk-related leave and allowances.
An individual employment contract may be lawfully
terminated by either the employer or the employee.
An individual employment contract is terminated de jure in the following cases:
Dismissal is termination of the
individual employment contract by the employer.
Dismissal may be imposed for reasons pertaining or not to the individual employee. Dismissal for reasons not pertaining to the employee may be individual or collective. Collective dismissal means the dismissal, within 30 calendar days, for one or several reasons not pertaining to the employees, of a number of employees regulated by law, in direct proportion to the total number of employees.
A dismissal decision must be communicated in writing to the employee concerned, and must contain the following: the reasons for dismissal; length of notice (15 working days).
Resignation is the unilateral voluntary act of an employee who, by means of a written notification, communicates to the employer the termination of his or her individual employment contract after serving a period of notice. Notice periods are stipulated by the parties in individual employment contracts or in the applicable collective labour agreements, as appropriate, and cannot exceed 15 calendar days for employees in operational positions and 30 days for employees in management positions.
The public system includes the following pension categories:
Trade unions are independent
non-profit legal bodies set up to protect and promote collective and individual
rights, as well as the professional, economic, social, cultural and
sport-related interests of their members.
Trade union representatives take part in the negotiation and conclusion of collective labour agreements, conventions and agreements with public authorities or employers’ organisations, as well as in specific structures for social dialogue. By law, trade unions are free to associate into federations, confederations or local units.
The right of employees to join a trade union is recognised by all employers, and it is among the rights and liberties guaranteed by the Constitution.
All disputes between employees and the institutions that
employ them concerning professional, social or economic interests or rights
resulting from employment relationships are called labour disputes. Labour
disputes relating to the establishment of working conditions during the
negotiation of collective labour agreement terms are disputes which refer to
the professional, social or economic interests of employees, hereafter called
conflicts of interest.
Labour disputes relating to the exercise of rights or fulfilment of obligations established by law or other legislation, as well as by collective or individual employment contracts, are disputes which refer to employees’ entitlements, hereafter called entitlement conflicts.
A strike may start only after all attempts of solving a conflict of interest by means of legal procedures have failed and on condition that the management of a unit has been given 48 hours’ notice with respect to the commencement of a strike.
Prior to the commencement of a strike mediation and arbitration of the conflict of interest are mandatory only if both parties agree to go through these steps.
Employees are entitled to go on strike in order to protect their professional, economic and social interests .
A strike represents a voluntary and collective cessation of work by employees.
Employees are free to decide with respect to their participation in a strike. No employee may be forced to participate or not to participate in a strike.
Limitations or restrictions or the right to strike are only possible in those cases and for those categories of employees which are expressly mentioned by the legislation in force.
Taking part in a strike and organising a strike under the terms of the law are not deemed as breaches of employee duties and they may not result in disciplinary sanctions against those employees on strike or against strike organisers.
Adults are entitled to equal access to vocational
training, without any form of discrimination – whether related to age, gender,
race, ethnicity, political or religious affiliation.
Business companies, national companies and societies, autonomous institutions and other units subordinated to the central or local public authorities, units and institutions financed from public and or non-public resources (employers) will take all measures required to provide their employees with the conditions they need in order to have access to vocational training.
It is advisable that employees attend vocational training courses organised by institutions which are legally authorised for this purpose.
Under the terms specified by the legislation in force, jobseekers may attend vocational training courses organised by the National Employment Agency or other legally authorised providers. Lifelong vocational training is subsequent to the initial training and helps adults either develop the vocational competences they already have or acquire new competences.
Following a proposal from the National Council for Adult Vocational Training and based on national development and action plans for governing programmes and sector strategies, the Ministry of Labour, Family and Equal Opportunities and the Ministry of Education and Research draft national policies and strategies concerning human resources development, including adult vocational training, which are then submitted to the government for approval.
Vocational training providers may organise vocational training programmes awarding qualification or graduation certificates upon completion. These certificates may be recognised at a national level only if vocational training activities are mentioned in the providers’ articles of association, or upon their authorisation to perform independent activities, as the case may be, and if they are legally authorised to perform such activities.
Quality of life – on top of the EU’s social
Favourable living conditions depend on a wide range of factors, such as quality healthcare services, education and training opportunities or good transport facilities, just to name a few aspects affecting citizens’ everyday life and work. The European Union has set for itself the aim of constantly improving the quality of life in all its Member States, and to take into account the new challenges of contemporary Europe, such as socially excluded people or an ageing population.
Employment in Europe
Improving employment opportunities in Europe is a key priority for the European Commission. With the prospect of tackling the problem of unemployment and increasing the mobility between jobs and regions, a wide variety of initiatives at EU level are being developed and implemented to support the European Employment strategy. These include the European Employment Service (EURES) and the future PROGRESS programme (2007-2013). The latter will replace all existing Community programmes and budget lines in the fields of employment, social inclusion and protection, working conditions, gender equality and anti-discrimination.
Health and healthcare in the European Union
Health is a cherished value, influencing people’s daily lives and therefore an important priority for all Europeans. A healthy environment is crucial for our individual and professional development, and EU citizens are ever more demanding about health and safety at work and the provision of high quality healthcare services. They require quick and easy access to medical treatment when travelling across the European Union. EU health policies are aimed at responding to these needs. The European Commission has developed a coordinated approach to health policy, putting into practice a series of initiatives that complement the actions of national public authorities. The Union’s common actions and objectives are included in EU health programmes and strategies.
The current EU Public Health Programme works towards improving the EU’s capability to respond to cross-border health threats and improve information and knowledge about latest developments in the public health sector. A new strategy has been designed in the area of health and consumer protection, which further underlines the need to improve citizens’ health security and disseminate health knowledge.
Education in the EU
Education in Europe has both deep roots and great diversity. Already in 1976, education ministries decided to set up an information network to better understand educational policies and systems in the then nine-nation European Community. This reflected the principle that the particular character of an educational system in any one Member State ought to be fully respected, while coordinated interaction between education, training and employment systems should be improved. Eurydice, the information network on education in Europe, was formally launched in 1980.
In 1986, attention turned from information exchanges to student exchanges with the launch of the ERASMUS programme, often cited as one of the most successful initiatives of the EU.
The experience gathered over a quarter of a century has been consolidated and developed into the SOCRATES programme, covering all areas of education at all ages and levels of ability.
To facilitate the introduction of European studies in universities, the Commission is also supporting the Jean Monnet project, offering start-up subsidies for the establishment of Jean Monnet Chairs, permanent courses, modules in European law, European economy, political studies of European construction, and the history of European integration. The project also supports the creation of Jean Monnet Centres of Excellence.
Transport in the EU
Transport was one of the first common policies of the then European Community. Since 1958, when the Treaty of Rome entered into force, the EU’s transport policy has focused on removing border obstacles between Member States, thereby enabling people and goods to move quickly, efficiently and cheaply. This principle is closely connected to the EU’s central goal of a dynamic economy and cohesive society. The transport sector generates 10% of EU wealth measured by gross domestic product (GDP), equivalent to about one billion Euros a year. It also provides more than ten million jobs.
The Schengen area
The Schengen Convention, in effect since March 1995, abolished border controls within the area of the signatory States and created a single external frontier where checks have to be carried out in accordance with a common set of rules.
Thirteen EU Member States are currently fully signed up to the Schengen Agreement. They are Belgium, Denmark, Germany, Greece, Spain, France, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Austria, Portugal, Finland and Sweden. Denmark has signed the Agreement, but it can choose whether or not to apply any new decision taken under the agreement. Iceland, Norway and Switzerland, which are not EU Members, have signed the agreement as well, but Switzerland doesn’t apply the regulations yet.
The creation of a single European market in air transport has meant lower fares and a wider choice of carriers and services for passengers. The EU has also created a set of rights to ensure that air passengers are treated fairly.
Air passenger rights
As an air passenger, you have certain rights when it comes to information about flights and reservations, damage to baggage, delays and cancellations, denied boarding, compensation in case of accident or difficulties with package holidays. These rights apply to scheduled and chartered flights, both domestic and international, from an EU airport or to an EU airport from one outside the EU, when operated by an EU airline.
Europe’s rail transport system is characterised by numerous obstacles to interoperability of the national networks. Different gauge widths, different systems for the supply of electricity, and major differences in the organisation of the rail traffic management systems cause significant delays at border crossings and therefore extra costs. Rail transport has thus become less competitive in recent years than transport by road for example.
To overcome existing problems, as part of its Common Transport Policy the European Community has adopted legislation to pave the way for the gradual establishment of an integrated European railway area, both legally and technically.
The Constitution, voted by the Constituent Assembly in
November 1991 and validated by referendum on 8 December 1991, established
Romania as a democratic and social state, governed by the rule of law.
In 2003, the Constitution was repromulgated following amendments and approval
by national referendum. Human dignity, civic rights and liberties, the
unlimited growth of human personality, justice and political pluralism are
supreme values enshrined in the Constitution (Article 1). The Constitution
establishes the separation of legislative, executive and judicial powers.
The Parliament consists of two assemblies, the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate, and is elected by universal suffrage for a 4-year term. The Parliament is the supreme representative body of the Romanian people and the sole legislature of the country.
The President of Romania is elected by all Romanian citizens by universal suffrage; a term of office lasts for five years. The President represents the Romanian state and monitors the observance of the Constitution and the governance of public authorities. He also nominates the candidate for the office of Prime Minister and appoints the Government following the Parliament’s confidence vote.
The Government implements the country’s domestic and foreign policies and governs the public administration.
Local administration is governed by the principle of local autonomy and decentralisation of public services.
Local councils and mayors, elected by direct vote, act as autonomous authorities and solve public issues in villages and cities. The Government appoints a prefect for each county and the municipality of Bucharest.
The Judiciary includes Courts, the Ministerul Public (Public Prosecution Service) and the Supreme Council of Magistrates. Justice is administered through the Supreme Court of Justice, county courts, other judicial bodies and courts martial. Judges are independent and subject only to the law. Within the Judiciary, the Ministerul Public (which exercises its functions through prosecutors attached to courts, as laid down by law) represents the general interests of society and protects the rule of law, as well as citizens’ rights and liberties.
From 3th quarter 2007, according to figures provided by
the National Institute of Statistics, Romania’s active population amounted to
10 305 000 people and those in employment came to 9 691 000.
The average net wage was RON 1200 RON (approximately EUR 325) in January 2008. There are differences in income between the western and eastern regions. Higher incomes are available in the more developed regions (Bucharest, the North-West), with Bucharest offering the highest incomes in the country.
In Romania, all employees and employers pay income tax as follows:
Employers also pay contributions for
the public maintenance of employment record books, workers’ compensation insurance,
Every year the Government sets the compulsory gross minimum wage (RON 500 – approximately EUR 135, for 2008).
vary according to regions and places. In small towns and villages, convenience
shops are open during the day, and sometimes overnight. One can also find small
non-stop outlets selling food.
In the large cities, supermarkets and hypermarkets offer a wide range of products 24 hours a day. Supermarkets are attractive due to their advantages (location – on the outskirts of cities, on city access roads, huge parking lots, lower prices, etc.).
Small shops usually sell the same products as the large retail chains but at slightly higher prices. As a rule, small shops are open between 09.00 and 17.00, whereas larger shops and supermarkets stay open until 09.00 or 22.00.
Although payment by card is widespread, this is not always possible in small shops.
A high proportion of customers choose to buy household appliances and PCs on credit. Credit contracts can be signed on the spot, a method that is promoted in various ways: customers obtain all kinds of goods and do not have to pay interest for such credits. Bigger retailers have launched their own consumer credit cards to stimulate customers to buy on credit or to use bonus points.
Banks are open Monday to Friday, from 09.00 to 18.00, and some branches are open on Saturday mornings. All banks are closed on Sundays. Post offices are open Monday to Friday, from 08.00 to 20.00, and some services are available on Saturdays as well, until 13.00.
UNIREA SHOPPING CENTER
WORLD TRADE PLAZA
Accommodation in Romania differs significantly between
the capital city and the provinces. Single-family houses are common in villages
and small towns, whereas blocks of flats and housing estates are more frequent
in big cities. The number of owner-occupied homes is quite large and exceeds
the EU average by a long way. Long-term leasing is not very common, and as a
result it is not easy to find apartment blocks with rental accommodation. All
over the country you can however find rented houses and flats not occupied by
their owners. Rent levels may vary significantly by location, ease of access,
property condition, etc.
According to a survey by the National Institute of Statistics on living conditions in Romania, 95.8 per cent of Romanian dwellings are entirely owned, whereas owner rentals are 1.6 per cent and state rentals are 1 per cent. Just 0.2% of respondents live on properties rented from business entities, and 1.4% live in rent-free dwellings.
To get accommodation, one can buy a new dwelling or a second-hand dwelling, or rent. The most convenient way is to purchase real estate from a developer (for instance, you may buy a 110 m2 house with garden for about EUR 100 000). If you want to build your dream home, you may go for a tailor-made construction by hiring independently contracting building teams or by signing a contract with a building company.
When purchasing a property, the contract of purchase becomes a public document. The signing of a contract must be witnessed by a public notary who submits it for certification by the Land Registry in charge of real estate records. When renting a dwelling, a private agreement between the two parties must be submitted.
Real estate providers can be owners or developers.
The Romanian banking market provides a wide range of funding instruments for buying or building a house. If you have decided on a mortgage/real estate credit, it is very important that you carefully study the offers on the market first (for instance, for a monthly net salary of EUR 300, available liquidities evaluated at EUR 10.000 and an interest rate of 7 per cent, the real estate buying power of the Romanian average buyer amounts to about EUR 30,000 per person or EUR 60-70 000 per household).
In order to make informed choices, you should seek professional advice from real estate agencies, which are best placed to offer you relevant suggestions and services.
Fiscal expenses cover taxes and notarial fees incurred in the process of buying property, as well as taxes on property and rental income. These expenses are definitely low in Romania as compared with the rest of Europe, and this contributes to some extent to a higher real estate market price.
Social health insurance aims at promoting health,
preventing disease and improving the quality of life. Social health insurance,
the main scheme for funding basic health care services, is compulsory.
Any member of this system is entitled to health care assistance from Romanian health care providers. Services are covered by insurance maintained through set-value contributions. Membership to social health insurance of citizens of EU Member States can be certified through the relevant E-form.
The unified national social health insurance fund is administered by the National Health Insurance Agency (CNAS) and by its regional centres. Certain categories are insured without having to pay any contribution:
Under the above-mentioned law, all
those insured are entitled to free medical services such as: medical
consultations, prescriptions, and basic hospital care.
Primary medical assistance can be provided by family doctors or general practitioners (GPs) or by various practitioner partnerships, in ordinary practices or by the functional integration of distinctly located practices.
GP’s offices provide medical services for both insured - registered and uninsured patients. These offices can provide basic, extended and additional medical care, such as:
The educational system is considered a national priority
in Romania. Education is based on humanist traditions, democratic values and
the aspirations of Romanian society, thus contributing to the promotion of national
The Romanian educational system uses modern methodologies and strategies, reinforced in practice, in accordance with the objectives set out by each educational system.
The state educational system is free of charge. Fees are charged, however, for some activities, as provided by law.
The Romanian language is used at all levels. According to current legislation, education may also take place in minority or international languages.
The national educational system consists of various kinds of state or private educational institutions and units.
Levels of the educational system:
The educational system is organised at different levels, providing for coherence and continuity of the teaching-learning process by age and individual characteristics.
The national system includes the following educational levels:
Upon completion of secondary school,
the highest level /degree of qualification is the baccalaureate examination
which consists of mandatory tests and optional subjects. The baccalaureate
examination is a prerequisite for access to higher education.
National higher education is structured at three university levels:
Technical and vocational school, and
the additional year, make up the vocational education system.
Attending primary school and lower secondary school is compulsory. Pre-university education is governed by the Ministry of Education and Research through the agency of school inspectorates, whereas higher education is only coordinated by the same Ministry, respecting academic autonomy.
The educational system is organised in several forms, as full-time, part-time and distance learning, or home-based learning for children with special needs. Compulsory education is full-time only.
After Romania’s accession to the European Union, citizens belonging to the European Economic Area and the Swiss Confederation have access to any educational system and level in Romania, under the same conditions stipulated for Romanian citizens, and this includes free tuition.
There are many opportunities to relax and have fun in
Many events are organised, such as the George Enescu Festival in Bucharest, Music Days in cities like Bucharest, Arad, Bacǎu, Braşov, Iaşi, Sibiu, the Mediaeval Festival in Sighişoara, the Pop Music Festival in Mamaia, the Golden Stag (a pop music festival) in Braşov.
Bucharest provides many opportunities for leisure time: cinema halls that spread all over the city, the Botanical Garden, theatres, museums or the Opera Hall for musical and ballet performances. Art lovers can have wonderful moments of enjoyment here.
One can go to the theatre or practise sports in all cities or towns, and sports facilities allow for a wide variety of sports to be pursued.
The Internet provides search engines in high demand from people looking for information on leisure activities or intending to organise holidays in Romania. Internet users are increasing in numbers and companies in various domains have started campaigns on the net in order to attract more clients.
Tourists may find it interesting to know that even the name of the country, Romania, is a reminder of the fact that ancient Roman civilization played a decisive role in the history of this country and that many monuments dating from those times can be visited here.
Tourists can choose from a wide range of activities and places to visit. There are traditional and especially created mountain resorts for skiing, or one can go sunbathing on Black Sea beaches.
Folklore is a heritage identified by tourists as one of Romania’s most extraordinary features. Every corner of Romania has places and opportunities for leisure activities. The Danube Delta, the monasteries in Northern Moldavia (included in the UNESCO World Heritage) are highly attractive tourist sites on the map of Europe.
One can also admire mediaeval fortresses, Byzantine-style monasteries with external frescoes and peasant houses decorated in specific regional styles, while Dracula’s castle is just one of the numerous impressive castles and palaces that can be visited. Noble families have always been patrons of the arts and supported the building of monuments in Romania.
Folklore festivals in Transylvania are authentic performances of local customs and traditions and not just shows specially produced for tourists. Wooden or ceramic handicrafts, also available for purchase by tourists, are mostly handmade and genuinely valuable, not just cheap souvenirs.
For a long time now, outdoor activities have been enthusiastically pursued in Romania. In fact Romanians understand the term “tourism” to mean “mountain hiking”. Also, one should not forget that the Black Sea provides excellent opportunities for practising water sports.
All the above mentioned places may be visited taking advantage of the convenience provided by the increasing numbers of hotels and restaurants, the local air transport network, rail and road transport facilities. The local cuisine and wines are a pleasant discovery for new visitors.
Civil status documents are authentic documents which
provide evidence of the birth, marriage or death of a person. Birth, marriage
and death certificates are issued in two original copies by the Registry of
Births, Deaths and Marriages. These documents are filled out by hand in special
Foreign citizens residing in or on temporary sojourn in Romania can request that their civil status events be recorded, and the relevant documents issued, under the same conditions as those for Romanian citizens.
Birth certificates are issued by the local Public Registry of Births, Deaths and Marriages in the jurisdiction where the child was born, based on the mother’s ID document and that of the person declaring the birth on the medical certificate stating the birth, issued by the health care institution where the birth has occurred, or based on the parents’ marriage certificate.
In Romania, marriage ceremonies are carried out by the Registrar at the headquarters of the local Public Registry of Births, Deaths and Marriages in the jurisdiction where one of the spouses is resident. The Registrar issues marriage certificates on the spot.
Publication of marriage banns is done personally, in writing, by the spouses-to-be at the local Public Registry of Births, Deaths and Marriages where the marriage ceremony is to take place.
Where one of the spouses does not speak Romanian (namely, where two foreign citizens, or a foreign and a Romanian citizen, are to be married), or where one or both spouses are deaf and/or dumb, an authorised interpreter is required and a written report of the proceedings is prepared.
Death certificates are issued by the local Public Registry of Births, Deaths and Marriages in the jurisdiction where the death occurred, based on a verbal statement made by one of members of the deceased person’s family, by neighbours, by the MD or another health care officer in the institution where the death occurred, and on the medical certificate confirming the death.
The Ministry of Labour, Family and Equal Opportunities provides bereavement benefits through local Pension Houses. The amount of bereavement benefits is set annually. For 2007, this amounts to:
Romania has a wide network of railways and international,
national and county roads. After joining the European Union Romania’s northern
and eastern borders have become EU borders, and this will probably make traffic
and transport more difficult.
Traffic on the Bucharest – Piteşti and Bucharest – Constanţa highways is dense (the latter connects the capital to the Black Sea). Other highways are currently being built.
The new Highway Code sets the speed limit at 120 km/h on highways; 90 km/h on national roads outside cities, towns or villages; and 50 km/h inside cities, towns or villages.
A host of concessionary fares are available for passengers travelling by train, local buses or inter-county buses:
Inner Danube traffic is very intense in
Romania, as is travel on the Black Sea. Sea ports such as Constanţa,
Brăila, Galaţi and Sulina are known internationally.
All Romanian cities and towns have local public transport. Buses connect city centres with suburban areas and outlying industrial estates. Larger towns have trams and trolley buses.
The Bucharest underground network has 4 highways connecting the 6 city sectors (the price of a return ticket is RON 2.00).
Local bus fares are reasonable and a large proportion of the population uses public transport.
Social security – a vital issue for persons
exercising their right of free movement
Respecting the principle of free movement of workers requires a clear commitment from all EU Member States that migrant workers, exercising their profession in another Member State, have the right to the same social security benefits as local employees. Providing social protection to EU citizens working outside their country of residence is a crucial issue for the European Union.
The EU’s provisions on social security cover both the Member States of the European Union and the European Economic Area (Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein).
Community social security provisions
Social security systems in EU countries still show substantial differences, and this calls for a necessary coordination of social security regulations. Common rules ensuring access to social benefits are important to avoid disadvantages for European workers exercising their right of free movement. They are designed to prevent EU citizens from running the risk of being insured twice or losing their social security benefits when moving to another country.
Although there is no single European social security system, the EU has set common provisions in the field of social protection. This includes the coordination of national social security schemes without seeking to harmonise national regulations. EU law has laid down common rules and principles to be observed by national local authorities and social security institutions that do not replace, but complement, the social security provisions of Member States.
The common social security provisions aim to:
The application of
The common regulations do not apply to all national social security legislation. The following benefits are covered:
Who can benefit from
social protection within the EU?
Social security benefits available in Member States are established by common EU provisions and apply to the following categories of people:
Affiliation of migrant
workers to national social security systems
If an EU citizen works in another Member State, it is important to determine which national social security system he/she is subject to – either the one in which they are insured or the one where they exercise their occupation.
The requirement to avoid a worker receiving double insurance or no social security at all, requires certain rules settling the basic principles of affiliation to one system and/or the other.
Receiving a pension in another Member State
EU nationals have the right to retire in another Member State. Countries where a worker has made pension contributions share a proportional responsibility for paying that pension, based on the period of employment.
The following institutions are involved in the enforcement of social security laws and regulations in Romania:
The Ministry of Labour, Family and
Equal Opportunities has an important role in coordinating the institutions in
charge with social security systems for employees and the self-employed who
move within the European Community, as well as for their family members. It
also plays an important role in defining policies, adopting legislation,
managing an important share of the social security system. NHPOSSR and NEA
operate under its jurisdiction.
The National Employment Agency, as a national public institution, organizes and co-ordinates activities in the fields of employment and the social protection of the unemployed, and oversees the implementation of employment policies designed by the Ministry of Labour, Family and Equal Opportunities. Its main responsibilities are to: organise, provide and finance unemployment prevention and employment stimulation services; provide, freely or at cost, professional training courses for the unemployed and for other categories of beneficiaries; advise jobseekers and mediate between them and employers; draw up proposals for the draft unemployment budget; and manage the unemployment insurance budget.
The National House of Pensions and Other Social Insurance Rights supervises the allotment of the following benefits: old age pension, early retirement pension, work incapacity pension, survivor pension, indemnities for temporary incapacity for work caused by regular illnesses or accidents when not at work, occupational illnesses and accidents at work, benefits for illness prevention and rehabilitation of work capacity, bereavement benefit.
The Ministry of Education and Research oversees the payment of social security benefits, respectively child allowances, as well as the access to full time mandatory education of children of migrant workers from EU member states – all under the same conditions as for Romanian citizens.
The Ministry of Public Health and National Health Insurance House are the institutions responsible for providing disability benefits in case of illness and childbirth (maternity indemnity, child benefit and disabled child benefit).
To be entitled to the provisions of the law on unemployment you have to be seeking a job in one of the following situations:
You can be insured if you are:
The insured must pay unemployment
insurance contribution and are by law entitled to receive unemployment
The system of unemployment insurance provides that the following are insured by law:
The following individuals may be insured under the unemployment insurance system:
Calculation of unemployment benefits
The unemployed receive unemployment benefits for periods established based on the duration of previous contributions, as follows:
1. 3%, for min-3-year contributors;
2. 5%, for min-5-year contributors;
3. 7%, for min-10-year contributors;
4. 10%, for min-20-year contributors.
The unemployed receive unemployment benefits provided they meet all the following conditions:
The unemployment benefit is a partial
compensation of the loss of income of the insured, incurred after losing a job,
after graduating from an educational institution, or after completing military
service and failing to gain employment.
Graduates of an educational institution, as well as individuals who have completed their military service and have been unable to gain employment, are eligible to receive unemployment benefits as a fixed monthly amount of 50% of the gross national minimum wage guaranteed for payment and applicable on the date when the benefit is calculated.
Individuals insured under an unemployment insurance contract must pay into the unemployment insurance budget a monthly contribution of 3.25% of the monthly income stated in the unemployment insurance contract.
Indemnities for temporary incapacity for work
To be entitled to paid sick leave and to health care social insurance benefits, one must have contributed to the Romanian social security system for at least one month within the 12 month-interval before the month of sick leave.
Allowances for temporary incapacity for work due to medical reasons are paid by: employers (depending on their number of employees at the date when the
A. temporary incapacity for work occurs), as follows:
o with up to 20 employees, from the first to the seventh day of temporary incapacity for work;
o with between 21 to 100 employees, from the first to the twelfth day of temporary incapacity for work;
o with over 100 employees, from the first to the seventeenth day of temporary incapacity for work.
B. the social health insurance budget, as follows:
o from the day following the interval covered by the employer up to the end of the period of temporary incapacity for work of the insured individual (or up to their retirement);
o from the first day of temporary incapacity for work, in case of unemployed or other categories of persons (associates or shareholders, members of family businesses, freelancers, administrators or directors under administration or directors’ contracts).
Allowances for temporary incapacity for work caused by occupational illnesses or by workplace accidents are paid from the first day of temporary incapacity up to the end of this condition or up to retirement.
According to Article 4(2) of Law No 19/17.03.2000 on the
public system for pensions and other social insurance rights, as subsequently
modified and completed, published in the Romanian Official Journal (M.O.)
140/01.04.2000, one is eligible to be insured if a Romanian citizen, a citizen
of another state or a stateless individual with legal permanent or temporary
residence in Romania.
The maternity allowance paid during the maternity leave period amounts to 85% of the wages, and is payable from the social insurance Budget.
Parental leave of absence and parental allowance, payable until a child is 2 years old (or 3 years old for a disabled child), is granted to parents (mothers or fathers) entitled to such benefits, provided they have had wage incomes, have paid taxes for the 12 months preceding the date of birth or, as the case may be, the date of adoption, placement or when the respective individual became the guardian of a child.
From 2007 the following benefits are provided:
Child allowances are payable for all children of pre-school age and those studying in an educational institution specified by law, up to the age of 18 or until graduation from high school or from vocational school, as provided by law.
The application and required documents must be registered with the city, town or village council where the child lives, and the council will forward the file to the local Labour, Family and Equal Opportunity directorate. Payments are made by payment order.
Other family benefits
Law No 19/2000 on the public pension system came into force at 1 April 2001. It stipulates a progressive increment of the retirement age for completing the contribution period, as follows:
For 2008, the standard retirement age
is 58 years and 3-6 months for women, and 63 years and 3-6 months for men.
Persons eligible for old age pension are those insured individuals who, at the date of their retirement, fulfil the requirements regarding the standard age for retirement and the minimum contribution period in the public system.
Persons eligible for early retirement pension are those insured individuals who have exceeded the complete contribution period by at least 10 years, and as such are entitled to apply for early retirement of up to 5 years before the standard retirement age.
The value of the early retirement pension entitlements is calculated under the same terms as that of the old age pension entitlements.
Persons eligible for a partial early retirement pension are those insured individuals who have completed their contribution periods or have exceeded the contribution period by up to 10 years. In this case, they may apply for the partial early retirement pension, along with a reduction of the standard retirement age by up to 5 years.
The value of partial early retirement pension entitlements is calculated as a function of the value of old age pension entitlements, and reduced depending on the level of the paid contribution. The standard retirement age is also reduced by the number of months short of required contribution.
Persons eligible for work incapacity pensions are insured individuals who have lost, totally or partially, their capacity to work following accidents at work, occupational illnesses and TBC, common diseases and activity related accidents.
Depending on the job tasks performed and the degree of disability acquired, the following levels are considered:
A doctor specialised in medical
assessment decides on which degree a disabled person qualifies for, based on
the required documents.
A survivor’s pension is granted to the surviving children or spouse, provided the deceased person was on a pension scheme or was eligible to receive a pension.
Children are entitled to receive a survivor’s pension up to the age of 16 or until they graduate from an educational institution, provided they are not over 26 years of age.
The surviving spouse is entitled to the survivor’s pension for the rest of his/her life, once he/she has reached the retirement age, provided the marriage lasted at least 15 years and was legal.
The authorities that issue E forms in Romania are:
Even if you have not filled out the required forms before leaving your country, you will still be able to continue to enjoy the respective right. This is because the authority in the receiving Member State will receive the respective forms from the authority in the state where you were insured.
The European Health Insurance Card
The European Health Insurance Card is an essential step towards the simplification of our various health care systems. Introduced in June 2004, the card substantially facilitates access to medical assistance for EU citizens travelling to another Member State. Furthermore, it guarantees a quick and simplified reimbursement of expenses incurred locally or shortly after return to the place of residence. Since 1 January 2006, the European Health Insurance Card has been issued and recognised by all concerned countries and replaces the previously used paper forms, such as the E 111.
Who is entitled to the EHIC?
European Health Insurance Cards are issued to:
While the main purpose of the European Health Insurance Card is to ensure easy access to health services during a temporary stay in another country, it also provides a series of additional benefits, for health care providers, patients and insurers alike. The main advantages of the EHIC may be summarised as follows:
Generally speaking, this ‘smart card’
contains only basic information such as the card holder’s name and surname and
date of birth, but no medical details. It is simple to use and easily
recognisable. The information is presented in a standardised way so that it can
be read regardless of language.
What is a ‘Smart Card’?
A "smart card" is a pocket-sized plastic card, which looks identical to normal bank or credit cards.
Smart Cards have a small gold chip on the front. When inserted into a specific reader, the chip makes contact with electrical connectors that can read information from the chip and write information back.
What information is saved on my health card?
The only personal information on the European health insurance card is the card holder’s surname and first name, personal identification number and date of birth. The European health insurance card does not contain any medical data.
Where is my health card accepted?
The EHIC can be used to receive any kind of health service, be it at a general practitioner, a hospital or a pharmacy. The EU Member States are responsible for the introduction and dissemination of the health cards, but also for the provision of all concerned health care facilities with card readers.
Using the European Health Insurance Card abroad
It is important to note that the health insurance card does not provide for cases in which a patient intentionally decides to obtain medical treatment abroad. Rather, it is intended to insure people travelling to other countries for a limited period and thus covers medical care which becomes necessary during a stay on the territory of another Member State. When a need for access to health care arises, treatment will be provided according to the rules of that particular country (for example if health care is free of charge in that Member State, the visiting patient will also be entitled to free medical care when presenting his/her European Health Insurance Card).
The provisional replacement certificate
If an individual in need of medical assistance is not in possession of his European Health Insurance Card he can, alternatively, submit a provisional replacement certificate which can easily be sent by fax or e-mail by the relevant home national health insurance institution. This certificate is equivalent to the EHIC and entitles the patient to the same treatment and reimbursement of benefits.
The design of the European Health Insurance Card
The design of the European Health Insurance Card is identical in all Member States and bears the European symbol. There are two variations of this layout: